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List Of Medications!

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This will be the spot where the moderators prepare a list of available medications, what they are treating, where to find them and the pros and cons about them, so keep checking back frequently, products are gonna be added on frequently! :)

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Pottassium Permanganate (PP)

Use: PP is affective against most pathogenic bacteria, flukes, columnaris, bacterial gill diesease, fungus, most bacteria on body and fins, but not helpful for Ich infestations.

Background: PP is a purple, granular powder, which will stain your hands and fabric it comes in contact with. Also sold in smaller liquid dosage as Permoxyn. PP can also be used in cold water very effectively, unlike other medications. IT is adviced not to inhale it, since its toxis to lungs. Also wear protective eye glasses. Its one of the least stressful medications, salt being the only one with even less stressing effects on the fish.

Other purposes : PP is a powerful oxidizer, oxidizing debris in your tank and leaving it cleaner. Its widely used by pond owners as part of spring cleaning. Its also used to sterilize tanks after illness, and to desinfect newly aquired plants.

Availability : Widely sold in pet and drug stores in 4 oz containers. add 1 quart of destilled water, and you have a stock solution that holds for a very long time. The powdered form is found in drugstores, feed stores, and online at FishyPharmacy, but will only be shipped as hazardous material, being a powerful oxidizer. To make a 0.04% stock solution, add 2 level measuring teaspoons to 1 gallon of destilled water. Shake it to mix.

Dosage: This 0.04% solution can be added as follows:

- 3 tablespoons per 10 gl

- 1/3 cup per 20 gl

- 1 cup per 60 gl

Naturally, if you wonna go with the lower 0.02% solution, use only half the above dosage.

Treatment should be 3 days in a row, but its neccessary to bypass the filter, since PP will take out quite a bit of the beneficial bacteria. Increasing the airation is a must when treating with PP. Watch the fish for the first 15 min for adverse reactions and have bucket with tank water ready just in case. Then turn the tank lights off and cover the tank, since PP is deactivated by light. The water will become purple and should remain so for at least 3-4 hours for the treatment to be effective. If there is too much organics in the tank, it might get deactivated earlier and turn into a brownish amber color. At this stage the PP is ineffective.

PP can also be used as a topical treatment, dapping it on affected areas with a cotton swab, just make sure it doesn't get into their eyes and gills.

Ways to deactivate: Hydrogen peroxide can be used, as well as most dechlorinators. Those products will turn PP and the tank into a brown amber color. Light also deactivates PP.

At this stage the filter media can be put back into the filter.


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Melafix is a liquid with a blue tint, and contains exacts of tea tree oil, which is known for its healing power.


Heals open wounds & abrasions, treats fin and tail rot, eye cloud, mouth fungus and promotes regrowth of damaged fin rays & tissue.


It is recommended, to remove any activated carbon during treatment.

Its 1 tsp for every 10 U.S. gl (40l). Repeat treatment every day for 7 days, then make a 25% water change.


Melafix will not affect the biologial load, therefore the filter can be running during treatment. There is no altering of pH, and no discoloration of any tank ornaments or seals. Its safe for reef aquarium and plants as well.


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Salt is one of the cheapest and easily available medications, without causing the fish stress like it would do with stronger medications.

kinds of salt

Aquarium salt, rock salt, pickle salt, and solar salt. Latter provides essential minerals to the fish and comes in 20 or 40 lb back in Home improvement centers.

Table salt is NOT to be used at all, it is deadly to the fish due to the anti caking agents in the salt.....


A low concentration of 0.1% is 1 teaspoon per gallon or 1 tablespoon per 5 gl. This low rate will not do any damage to most water plants.

A medium concentration is between 0.1% and 0.5%, but personally I don't go higher than 0.3%. This rate should be obtained in 12 hour intervals, 0.1% salt for 3 times.

A high concentration is up to 0.9% is only recommended for very short treatments, like a dip or short bath, otherwise its deadly to your fish.

Salt dips

There are certain situations where you wonna expose your fish to a brief, but strong salt dip to knock off half a dozen parasites....

- bringing home a new fish from the pet store

- fish comes inside before winter from your pond into an aquarium

- flashing/scratching

- a huge amount of parasites discovered with a microscope

- persistant case of fin rot

A dipped fish will be so much more responsive to other medications added to the tank...

Exceptions: The fish is very small and weak, or you see dark bloody gills, which indicates ammonia toxicity or other kinds of toxins.

How to: Use 1/2 cup of salt from the above list per gallon of water, adjust the temperature, so the fish does not get stressed from temperature shock. Put the salt into the water. When the salt is dissolved, add the fish to the sater and start the timer. A dip between 30 seconds and 5 min is sufficient, as long as the fish does not show any signs of stress. Small fish of course do better in shorter dips.

The fish should be swimming around in the bucket, and start to float on top of the water. This is a normal reaction. Just poke the fish, and continue the dip IF the fish starts to move around again. If the fish does not react to your poking, take him out immediately. For bigger fish, even if they are swimming constantly for the whole 5 min, this is the maximum, anything longer than that can kill them.

If the fish, especially smaller ones, start to swim or roll around funny after being put into the dip, they need to be taken out right away, no matter how short the dip was. Then they are not able to handle the dip.

Of course, its not a good idea to put the fish back where he came from. The infected tank should be treated as well, while the dipped fish can house into some sort of hospital tank/tub.

Besides the parasite treatment, salt is also an excellent preventive for nitrite poisoning. Depending on how high your nitrite is and how long your fish has been exposed to it, a percentage of 0.1 to 0.3 is recommended to protect the fishies gill from the nitrite.....




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Life Bearer

Backgrund: Active ingredient is dimethyl, hydroxy, trichloromethyl phosphate

LifeBearer is a great tool to get rid of gill flukes, as well as fish lice, anchor worms and leeches. Commonly sold in a 3/4 fl oz.

Dosage: one drop per gallon, repeat in 24 hours (for fresh water), 2 drops per gallon, repeat in 24 hours (for salt water)

Precautions: Do not use it with invertebrates, and cautiously wth piranhas, marine sharks and lion fish. As this medication is, or can be, very harsh on fish, have a bucket of temperature matched, dechlorinated water sitting nearby to transer negatively affected fish.


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Backgrund:contains 99.20% Formaldehyde and 0.75% Malachite Green. It treats Ich, Chilodonella, Trichodina and Costia, as well as most other parasites, except for gill or skin flukes.

Dosage: Treat 3 days in a row, with 30% water changes each day, at a rate of 1 drop per gallon of water. Take out the carbon from the filter during treatment. QuickCure will color the water slightly blue, but it will disappear after a few days.

Since Malachite Green is deactivated by light, turn off the tank lights after observing the fish for the first 15 minutes. Have a bucket with tank water handy, in case of an adverse reaction by a fish.

Precautions: QuickCure should never be refridgerated. The Formaldehyde in it will turn into the very toxic paraformaldehyde, which makes the medicine look cloudy. If there is any doubt about a bottle of QuickCure developing into Paraformaldehyde, do not use it and throw it away.

QuickCure also shouldn't be used in water temperatures below 60 degrees.


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Anchors Away

Background: Contains Diflubenzuron, a.k. Dimilin. Very effective treatment against anchor worm (lernea) and fish lice (argulus).

Dosage: Use 1 teaspoon (5g) to 50 U.S. gallons (190 L). Maintain strong aeration during treatment. If needed, safely treat up to 3 times - wait 6 days between treatments. Change 25% of water between each treatment. Remove activated carbon during use.

Precautions: remove snails and crustaceans. Anchors Away is safe for plants.


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PP paste receipe (Courtesy of Scott)


A teaspoon of PP granules in a small cup made of glass (if you you plastic, PP will stain the plastic permanenty), adding 3 drops of water to it and mixing it. Keep adding a couple of drops of water after each mixing until it becomes a paste like mass with all the PP fully disolved.


The paste is especially effective in treating open ulcers and wounds. It carterizes the wound and kills anything that could possibly be on or in it. It is also used for mouth rot and fin rot as well and from what I understand is very successful in eliminating the problem and the fish heals well.


For general info on PP, you can read up on it above in the Pottassium Permanganate post....


You should try and keep the fish calm and on your working table (what ever you use to work with the fish) out of the water for about a minute with the PP paste on, then scrape off what ever is loose before releasing in the water. I'd also advise to put the fish in a rinse tub then back into the tank he/she is going back into to stay. I put my fish on a wet towel while putting the pp past on her , this way I could keep her as moist as possible.


PP will kill your bio filter so that is why you get the excess off before replacing the fish, and that is why I think a rinse tub is adviseable. And if the fish just wont stand for you to scrape the excess off or wait for the rinse tub put him/her in the tank and have hydrogen peroxide at the ready because it instantly detoxifies PP. Put in a little hydrogen peroxide (away from the fish, it will burn the gills if you dump it on the fish) mix it around. For a tank it doesn't take much Hydrogen peroxide. For a pond 1 quart of hydrogen peroxide can detoxify 5,000 gallons of water that has PP in it.

PP will also stain the skin it comes in contact with as well as clothes, so be sure to wear gloves and protect your clothes. Some protective eye glasses are a good idea as well, just in case of a spill.... :)

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Background: Active ingredients Sodium Chloride, Malachite Green. Works great for the Ich parasites

Dosage: 1 drop per gallon of water, every day for three days then do a 20-30% water change. Then treat again for 2 days then do a 20% water change add the carbon back to the filter to remove the rest of the medicine out.

Precautions: remove snails and crustaceans. Nox-Ich is safe for plants.


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Background: active ingredient 200 mg of erythromycin, with B-complex vitamins. A broad-spectrum antibiotic used in the treatment of body fungus, columnaris, fin and tail rot, popeye, gill disease, secondary infections and other gram-positive bacterial infections and fungal diseases.

Some more: Maracyn is ideal for just sterilizing the tank.

Dosage: 1 tablet per 10 gallons of freshwater or 20 gallons of saltwater, for 5 days.

Precautions: Remove any carbon from the filter before treatment, otherwise the carbon will remove the medication. A slight cloudyness might occur in the tank, and it is said by the maker, Mardel, that it is not suposed to do harm to the biological filtration, if used alone.



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Maracyn Two

Background: active ingredient Minocycline, B-complex vitamins. A broad-spectrum antibiotic for internal or external gram negative bacterial infections. Effective treatment of fin and tail rot, popeye, gill disease, dropsy, bleeding or red streaks, secondary and internal infections. Effective even when fish won't eat.

Dosage: For freshwater, use 2 tablets per 10 gallons first day and 1 tablet per 10 gallons thereafter. For saltwater, use 1 tablet per 10 gallons first day and 1 tablet per 20 gallons thereafter.

Precautions: As with Maracyn, remove the carbon in the filter for optimal medication effect. Supposedly doesn't harm the beneficial bacteria, and can safely be used in combination with Maracyn, in which case the water parameters need to be watched.



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Praziquantel (Prazi, Prazi-Pro)

Background: Prazi is one of the most gentle medications out there, and very effective for both gill and body flukes, as well as internal worms like tapeworms. It is a treatment that doesn't require water changes after usage, can be used together with salt, is not temperature dependant, non-toxic to plants and fry, and doesn't effect your beneficial bacteria.

Dosage: Please follow instructions on the bottle, which come in either 50 gram or 100 gram. Shut of any UV's and remove carbon from the filter.

Another option

Prazi-Pro, the first ready-to-use liquid concentrate praziquantel treatment. May also be used as a preventive. Not for reef aquariums. 4 oz. treats 480 gallons, 16 oz. concentrate treats 3,200 gallons.

Pros and cons

Both Prazi and Prazi-Pro are very gentle, a one time treatment, don't need water changes or disconnecting of filtration and is non toxic to other aquatic animals or plants.

Although Prazi-Pro is a lot easier to dose and cheaper than Prazi, I have heard that it is less effective than the original Prazi, since there is less than 5% Prazi actually in Prazi-Pro.


In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. In case of skin contact, wash with soap and plenty of water. If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (if person is conscious). Obtain medical advice.



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Background: active ingredient Diflubenzuron N-[{(4-Chlorophenyl)amino}carbonyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide

For the control of anchor worm (Lernaea) and and fish lice (Argulus) in ornamental ponds, water gardens, koi ponds and display tanks containing fish including koi and goldfish. Interrupts the parasite?s life cycle and reproductive processes.

Easy to use liquid will not discolor water, safe for plants, will not affect the biological filtration. Reviewed and accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency. Will kill crayfish, dragonflies, etc.

Dosage: Remove carbon from filter during treatment.

Shake the bottle vigorously for at least one minute. Add 1 tablespoon (15ml) for every 60 gallons (227 L) or 1/2 cup (120 ml) for every 480 gallons (1816 L) of water. Wait 14 days then repeat treatment to ensure control of parasites. Do not change the water between treatments. After the second treatment is complete wait another 14 days before discharging or disposing of treated water.

16 oz. bottle treats up to 1.920 gl of water.


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Nitrofura-G from Aquatronics

Background: Active ingredients are Furazolidone, Methylene blue and potassium dichromate. Treatment for red streaks, fin and tail deterioration, open sores, general bacterial infections and gill diseases, fungal infections.

Dosage: Use 1 capsule per each 10 NET gallons. As with other antibiotics, use every other day for 5 days (3 treatments are recommended). 200 mg blended antibiotic capsules are available in 10, 100 and 1000 capsule containers. Also available in a 50gm bulk powder size.

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Chloramine T

Background: Choramines T is a white powder that, once in the aquarium/vat/bin, forms an acid (hydrochloric acid). If dosed properly and according to your water hardness, it is very good at helping to cure baterial gill disease (symptoms are swollen and/or pale gills), body fungus and bacterial infections.

It can even help to control flukes, wich are a common agitant in gill disease. Even though hydrochloric acids are caustic, when properly dosed, it is in high enough concentration to kill parasites and bacteria but low enough so as to not kill the fish.

Works in much the same way benzokalium chloride does.

Dosage: Dosage depends on water hardness.

5ppm for soft water or weak fish

10ppm for soft water low pH

15ppm for medium hard water or moderate pH

20ppm for hard water with pH > 8.0

25ppm for very hard water, pH >8.8 or high organic loading

Pros: Works fast and one or two treatments does the trick.

Cons: if used more than twice, the fish may becomed "burned" by it.


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Parasite Clear (Jungle Labs)

Background: This is perhaps the best, all in one, parasite treatments there are. It will kill all of the following in one fell swoop. But some of the ciliates/flagellates listed below have recently begun to become resistant to acriflavin. But, if treated in a separate container and transferred to a new tank with new bio-filter, eradication can often be attained :

Prazi kills:



Acriflavin kills:





Dimilin kills:




Metronidazole kills:



Dosage: One tablet treats 10 US gallons. No need to raise the water temperature. Also helps prevent secondary infections and will not harm biological filtration. Wait 48 hours between treatments. Remove activated carbon. Change 25% (or more) of the water before each new treatment. For anchor worms, repeat treatment up to three times, once a week, for three weeks. For fish lice, treat once a week for three to five weeks. DO NOT OVERDOSE.

Active ingredients: Praziquantel, dimilin, metronidazol, acriflavin

Pros Will not harm biological filtration. Kills most any parasite (barring resistance to acriflavin). Easy instructions and dosing. Safe for use during a 0.3% salt solution.

Cons Cannot be used with snails, shrimp, clams, crabs. Also, scaleless fish, tetras and very small fish should be watched carefully the first day or two.


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Metronidazole Synonyms: acromona, anagiardil, arilin, deflamon, efloran, elyzol, entizol, flagesol, flagil, flagyl, fossyol, gineflavir, klio, medazol, metro gel, metrogyl, metron, protostat, orvagil, trichazol, vagilen, vagimid, zadstat. Must contain only one of these listed above, or with other products in an aquariumfish medication.

Background: This medication can effectively eradicate hexamita, spironucleus and several other flagellates. Most of wich, live internally, but not exclusively. So, it must be used in a long term bath or orally for it to be effective.

Active ingredients: Metronidazole. Note, this is one of the main ingredients in Mtro-meds from http://www.goldfishconnection.com .

Dosage: 5ppm baths for 3 to 4 days. Change water with each treatment. Poorly soluble.

Pros: Can be used with most other treatments. Effective against certain bacterias as well. Bio-filter safe. Might be effective against KHV (juries out).

Cons: None to speak of.

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